Muhaisen et al., 2012 (Palestine)
Risk factors of cardiovascular disease among children with chronic kidney disease in Gaza strip.
Muhaisen RM, Sharif FA, Yassin MM.
J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2012 Apr;3(2):91-8.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and end-stage renal disease. There is accumulating evidence that the increase in CVD burden is present in CKD patients prior to dialysis, due both to conventional risk factors and kidney-specific disease. Detection and initiation of treatment for CVD risk factors at early stages of CKD should be effective in reducing CVD events before as well as after the onset of kidney failure.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The study sample consisted of a total of 112 subjects aged ≤12 years: 60 CKD patients and 52 healthy control individuals. All subjects were investigated for a group of CVD risk factors such as: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, physical inactivity, body mass index (BMI), family history of CVD, hypoalbuminemia, albuminuria, anemia, Ca x P product, and inflammation in terms of C-reactive protein (CRP).
Patients (40 males and 20 females) were categorized into four CKD stages (2, 3, 4, and 5) where, Stage 4 had the highest frequency, followed by Stages 3, 5 and 2. Evaluation of the patients indicated that they were shorter, had lower weight and had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared with control subjects. Frequency of physical inactivity among patients was two-fold higher than controls (50% vs. 25%). The patients showed significantly higher levels of cholesterol (163.6±39.8 vs. 141.8±24.2 mg/dL, P<0.0001), triglycerides (145.5±67.1 vs. 82.9±39.8 mg/dL, P<0.0001), low-density lipoprotein (92.6±31.9 vs. 72.5±19 mg/dL, P<0.0001) and albumin/creatinine ratio (1792±3183 vs. 11.1±6.6 mg/g, P<0.0001). Moreover, the patients had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (41.9±11.0 vs. 52.7±11.7 mg/dL, P<0.0001), hemoglobin (9.8±1.4 vs. 11.9±0.8 g/dL, P<0.0001) and albumin (4.6±0.6 vs. 4.8±0.2 g/dL, P=0.012). The CRP showed higher occurrence among patients (40% were positive for CRP). Calcium and phosphorus evaluation showed significantly lower calcium and higher phosphorus among patients. However, the difference in Ca X P product was not statistically significant.
The study indicates that many of the CVD risk factors are associated with the different stages of CKD in children patients prior to dialysis, and that some of these factors are exacerbated as CKD progresses.